DROPS / 99 / 8

Seaside Stroll by DROPS Design

DROPS Crochet jacket in ”Alpaca”. Sizes S - XXXL

Size: S - M - L - XL - XXL - XXXL

Materials: DROPS Alpaca from Garnstudio
500-550-600-650-700-750 g colour no 2020, light camel eco
150-150-200-200-200-200 g colour no 0618, light beige eco
50 g for all sizes colour no 9020, light pearl grey

DROPS crochet hook size 3.5 mm – or the size needed to obtain correct crochet tension.
6 buttons – approx 2 cm in diameter.

Have you knitted/crocheted this or any other of our designs? Tag your pictures in social media with #dropsdesign so we can see them!

Want to use a different yarn? Try our yarn converter!
Not sure which size you should choose? Then it might help you to know that the model in the picture is approx. 170 cm and uses size S or M. If you are making a jumper, cardigan, dress or similar garment, you will find a graphic with the measurements of the finished garment (in cm) at the bottom of the pattern.

100% Alpaca
from 3.20 £ /50g
DROPS Alpaca uni colour DROPS Alpaca uni colour 3.20 £ /50g
Wool Warehouse Direct Ltd
Order
DROPS Alpaca mix DROPS Alpaca mix 3.30 £ /50g
Wool Warehouse Direct Ltd
Order
DROPS Needles & Hooks
You can get the yarn to make this pattern from 44.80£. Read more.

Pattern instructions

NOTE: This pattern is written in British English. All measurements in charts are in cm. For conversion from cm to inches - click here. There are different terms for crocheting in British and American English. If this pattern includes crochet, click for "crochet terms" here. For this pattern in American English, please click here.
Crochet tension; 4 x 4 pattern repeats crochet with hook size 3.5 mm = 10 x 10 cm
Crochet info: Substitute each tr in beginning of row with 3 ch.
Pattern: See diagram M.1. Diagrams are seen from RS. English Translations for wording in diagrams are given at the bottom of pattern and they are given in the vertical order in which they appear in diagram.
Closing off tips: Cast off at 1 or 1/2 pattern repeat – see figure 1 and figure 2.
Cast off at beginning of row as follows: Substitute 1 pattern repeat with 6 sl st and ½ pattern repeat with 3 sl st.
Cast off at end of row as follows: Turn when piece when either 1 or ½ pattern repeat is left.
Increasing tip (applies to sleeve): Inc by ½ pattern repeat. Inc by turning with 5 ch instead of 3. Crochet ½ pattern repeat on next row over 2 extra ch - see figure 3.

Back piece: Crochet 120-132-144-156-168-180 ch (incl 8 ch to turn with) on crochet hook size 3.5 mm with light camel. Crochet 1 tr in the 9th ch from hook, *2 ch, skip 2 ch, 1 tr in next ch *, repeat from *-* = 39-43-47-51-55-59 tr. Now crochet according to M.1 (1st row is crochet so begin with 2nd row) = 19-21-23-25-27-29 pattern repeats. When piece measures 10 and 20 cm cast off ½ pattern repeat on each side – read Casting off tips = 17-19-21-23-25-27 repeats. When piece measures 30-31-32-33-34-35 cm (stop after 1st row of M.1) change to light beige and continue in tr. - read Crochet info! Crochet 2 tr in each ch loop and 1 tr in each tr from M.1 = 103-115-127-139-151-163 tr.
Crochet 1 tr in each tr until piece measures 38-39-40-42-43-44 cm, change back to light camel and crochet according to M.1. again. (Crochet first row in M.1 as follows: 3 ch in first tr, *2 ch, skip 2 tr, 1 tr in next tr*, repeat from *-*) = 17-19-21-23-25-27 pattern repeats. When piece measures 51-52-53-54-55-56 cm cast off for armhole on each side - each row – read Cast off tips: 1 pattern repeat 1-1-2-2-2-2 times in total, then ½ pattern repeat 0-2-2-2-4-4 times = 15-15-15-17-17-19 pattern repeat. When piece measures 68-70-72-74-76-78 cm crochet 1 row but only over outermost 6-6-6-6-6-7 pattern repeats on each side (do not crochet over middle 3-3-3-5-5-5 pattern repeats = neckline). Crochet 1 row back and cut thread, piece measures approx 70-72-74-76-78-80 cm.

Right front piece: Crochet 66-72-78-84-90-96 ch (incl 8 ch to turn with) on crochet hook size 3.5 mm with light camel. Begin mid front and crochet towards side. Crochet 1 tr in the 9th ch from hook, *2 ch, skip 2 ch, 1 tr in next ch *, repeat from *-* = 21-23-25-27-29-31 tr. Now crochet after M.1 (1st row is crochet so begin with 2nd row) = 10-11-12-13-14-15 pattern repeats.
When piece measures 15 and 25 cm cast off ½ pattern repeat on side as back piece = 9-10-11-12-13-14 pattern repeats.
When piece measures 30-31-32-33-34-35 cm (stop after 1st row of M.1) change to light beige and continue in tr – read Crochet info. Crochet 2 tr in each ch loop and 1 tr in each tr from M.1 = 55-61-67-73-79-85 tr. Crochet 1 tr in each tr until piece measures 38-39-40-42-43-44 cm, change back to light camel and crochet after M.1 again. (Crochet first row in M.1 as follows: 3 ch in 1st tr, *2 ch, skip 2 tr, 1 tr in next tr*, repeat from *-* on entire row) = 9-10-11-12-13-14 pattern repeats. When piece measures approx 41-42-43-44-45-46 cm cast off for neck mid front on every other row: Cast of ½ pattern repeat 4-4-4-6-6-6 times in total – read Cast off tips. At the same time when piece measures 51-52-53-54-55-56 cm cast off for armhole on side as back piece. After all cast offs there are 6-6-6-6-6-7 pattern repeats on shoulder. Crochet until piece measures 70-72-74-76-78-80 cm, cut and sew thread.

Left front piece: Crochet like right front piece. Begin mid front and crochet towards side.

Sleeve: Crochet 65-65-72-72-79-79 ch (incl 4 ch to turn with) on crochet hook size 3.5 mm with light beige. Crochet 1 tr in 4th ch from crochet hook *1 tr in each of next 6 ch, skip 1 ch*, repeat from *-*, and finish off with 1 tr in each of the last 5 ch = 55-55-61-61-67-67 tr.
Crochet 1 tr in each tr until piece measures 12 cm, change to light camel and crochet M.1. (Crochet first row in M.1 as follows: 3 ch in first tr, *2 ch, skip 2 tr, 1 tr in next tr*, repeat from *-* on entire row) = 9-9-10-10-11-11 pattern repeats.
When piece measures 15-18-18-18-18-18 cm inc ½ pattern repeat on each side on every 8 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 rows 4-6-6-6-6-6 times in total – read Increasing tips = 13-15-16-16-17-17 pattern repeats.
When piece measures 48-47-47-46-46-45 cm cast off 1 pattern repeat on each side to shape sleeve cap. Then cast off ½ pattern repeat on each side on every other row 0-0-0-0-2-2 times in total, then on every row 6-7-8-8-6-6 times in total = 5-6-6-6-7-7 pattern repeats – read Cast off tips. Crochet until piece measures 57-57-58-58-59-59 cm, cut and sew thread.

Assembly: Sew shoulder seam tog. Sew in sleeves. Sew sleeves and side seam in one – sew outer edge with small, neat sts.

Crochet edge: Crochet edge with crochet hook size 3.5 with light grey along left front piece, around neckline, down along right front piece, around along bottom edge and around bottom edge of sleeves as follows: Crochet 1 dc, *skip 2 cm, 4 dtr around next ch, 2 ch, 4 dtr around the same st, skip 2 cm, 1 dc around next st *, repeat from *-*.

Button cover: Crochet cover for 6 buttons on crochet hook size 3.5 mm with 1 thread light grey as follows: Crochet 2 ch, then crochet 16 tr in the first of the 2 ch, finish off with 1 sl st in first tr of round (= 1st round).
2nd round: Crochet 1 dc in each tr and finish off with 1 sl st in first dc of round.
3rd round: Crochet 1 tr in every other dc and finish off with 1 sl st in first tr of round = 8 tr.
Slip button inside cover, sew around edge and pull tog. Sew buttons on jacket.
Sew 1 button in at bottom edge of tr part and 1 button at top edge. Sew in 2 buttons at bottom of sleeve. Sew in buttons at front part of sleeve, approx. 3 and 7 cm from bottom edge.

English translations to diagrams:

=ch
=tr
=tr group Crochet 2 tr in same st, 2 ch, crochet, 2 tr in same st
=sl st

This pattern has been corrected. .

Updated online: 03.02.2010
Right front piece: ...Now crochet after M.1 (1st row is crochet so begin with 2nd row) = 10-11-12-13-14-15 pattern repeats.
When piece measures 15 and 25 cm bind off ½ pattern repeat on side as back piece ...

Diagram

= ch
= tr
= tr group: crochet 2 tr in same st, 2 ch, crochet, 2 tr in same st
= sl st


Do you need help with this pattern?

Thank you for choosing a DROPS Design pattern. We take pride in providing patterns that are correct and easy to understand. All patterns are translated from Norwegian and you can always check the original pattern (DROPS 99-8) for measurements and calculations.

Are you having trouble following the pattern? See below for a list of resources to help you finish your project in no time - or why not, learn something new.

1) Why is the knitting/crochet tension so important?

Knitting tension is what determines the final measurements of your work, and is usually measured per 10 x 10 cm. It is provided like so: number of stitches in width x number of rows in height - eg: 19 stitches x 26 rows = 10 x 10 cm.

The knitting tension is very individual; some people knit/crochet loosely while others work tightly. You adjust the knitting tension with the needle size, which is why the suggested needle size only serve as a guide! You need to adjust this (up or down) to ensure that YOUR knitting tension matches the knitting tension provided in the pattern. If you work with a different knitting tension than provided you will have a different yarn consumption, and your work will have different measurements than what the pattern suggests.

The knitting tension also determines which yarns can replace each other. As long as you achieve the same knitting tension you can replace one yarn with another.

See DROPS lesson: How to measure your tension/gauge

See DROPS video: How to make a gauge tension swatch

to top

2) What are the yarn groups?

All our yarns are categorised into yarn groups (from A to F) according to thickness and knitting tension – group A contains the thinnest yarns and group F the thickest. This makes it easier for you to find alternative yarns to our patterns, should you wish to switch yarn. All yarns within the same group have a similar knitting tension and can easily replace each other. However, different yarn qualities have different structures and properties which will give the finished work a unique look and feel.

Click here for an overview of the yarns in each yarn group

to top

3) Can I use a different yarn than what the pattern suggests?

The important thing when changing from one yarn to another is that the knitting/crochet tension remains the same. This is so that the measurements of the finished piece will be the same as on the sketch provided. It is easier to achieve the same knitting tension using yarns from the same yarn group. It is also possible to work with multiple strands of a thinner yarn to achieve the knitting tension of a thicker one. Please try our yarn converter. We recommend you to always work a test swatch.

Please NOTE: when changing yarn the garment might have a different look and feel to the garment in the photo, due to individual properties and qualities of each yarn.

See DROPS lesson: Can I use a different yarn than the one mentioned in the pattern?

to top

4) How do I use the yarn converter?

At the top of all our patterns you’ll find a link to our yarn converter, which is a helpful tool should you wish to use a different yarn than suggested. By filling in the yarn quality you wish to replace, the amount (in your size) and number of strands, the converter will present good alternative yarns with the same knitting tension. Additionally it will tell you how much you’ll require in the new qualities and whether you’ll need to work with multiple strands. Most skeins are 50g (some are 25g or 100g).

If the pattern is worked with multiple colours, every colour will have to be converted separately. Similarly, if the pattern is worked with several strands of different yarns (for example 1 strand Alpaca and 1 strand Kid-Silk) you will have to find alternatives for each, individually.

Click here to see our yarn converter

to top

5) Why do I get the wrong knitting tension with the suggested needle size?

The needle size provided in the pattern serves only as a guide, the important thing is to follow the knitting tension. And since knitting tension is very individual, you will have to adjust the needle size to ensure that YOUR tension is the same as in the pattern – maybe you’ll have to adjust 1, or even 2 needle sizes, up or down to achieve the correct tension. For this, we recommend that you work test swatches.

Should you work with a different knitting tension than the one provided, the measurements of the finished garment might deviate from the measurement sketch.

See DROPS lesson: How to measure your tension/gauge

See DROPS video: How to make a gauge tension swatch

to top

6) Why is the pattern worked top-down?

Working a garment top-down provides more flexibility and room for personal adjustment. For example it is easier to try the garment on while working, as well as making adjustments to length of yoke and shoulder caps.

The instructions are carefully explaining every step, in the correct order. Diagrams are adjusted to the knitting direction and are worked as usual.

to top

7) Why are the sleeves shorter in larger sizes?

The total width of the garment (from wrist-to-wrist) will be larger in the larger sizes, despite the actual sleeves being shorter. The larger sizes have longer sleeve caps and wider shoulders, so there will be a good fit in all sizes.

to top

8) What is a repeat?

Diagrams are often repeated on the round or in height. 1 repeat is the diagram the way it appears in the pattern. If it says to work 5 repeats of A.1 in the round, then you work A.1 a total of 5 times after/next to each other in the round. If it says to work 2 repeats of A.1 vertically/in height you work the entire diagram once, then begin again at the start and work the entire diagram one more time.

to top

9) How do I work according to a knitting diagram?

The diagram depicts all rows/rounds, and every stitch seen from the right side. It is read from bottom to top, from right to left. 1 square = 1 stitch.

When working back and forth, every other row is worked from the right side and every other row is worked from the wrong side. When working from the wrong side, the diagram will have to be worked reversed: from left to right, knit stitches are purled, purl stitches are knit etc.

When working in the round every round is worked from the right side and the diagram are worked from right to left on all rounds.

See DROPS lesson: How to read knitting diagrams

to top

10) How do I work according to a crochet diagram?

The diagram depicts all rows/rounds, and every stitch seen from the right side. It is worked from bottom to top, from right to left.

When working back and forth every other row is worked from the right side: from right to left and every other row is worked from the wrong side: from left to right.

When working in the round, every row in the diagram are worked from the right side, from right to left.

When working a circular diagram you start in the middle and work your way outwards, counter clockwise, row by row.

The rows usually start with a given number of chain stitches (equivalent to the height of the following stitch), this will either be depicted in the diagram or explained in the pattern.

See DROPS lesson: How to read crochet diagrams

to top

11) How do I work several diagrams simultaneously on the same row/round?

Instructions for working several diagrams after each other on the same row/round, will often be written like so: “work A.1, A.2, A.3 a total of 0-0-2-3-4 times". This means you work A.1 once, then A.2 is worked once, and A.3 is repeated (in width) the number of times provided for your size – in this case like so: S = 0 times, M = 0 times, L=2 times, XL= 3 times and XXL = 4 times.

The diagrams are worked as usual: begin with the first row in A.1, then work the first row in A.2 etc.

See DROPS lesson: How to read knitting diagrams

See DROPS lesson: How to read crochet diagrams

to top

12) Why does the piece start with more chain stitches than it’s worked with?

Chain stitches are slightly narrower than other stitches and to avoid working the cast-on edge too tight, we simply chain more stitches to begin with. The stitch count will be adjusted on the following row to fit the pattern and measurement sketch.

to top

13) Why increase before the rib edge when the piece is worked top-down?

The rib edge is more elastic and will contract slightly compared to, for example, stocking stitch. By increasing before the rib edge, you avoid a visible difference in width between the rib edge and the rest of the body.

to top

14) Why increase in the cast-off edge?

It’s very easy to cast off too tightly, and by making yarn overs while casting off (and simultaneously casting these off) you avoid a too tight cast off edge.

See DROPS video: How to bind off with yarn overs (yo)

to top

15) How do I increase/decrease on every 3rd and 4th row/round alternately?

To achieve an even increase (or decrease) you can increase on, for example: every 3rd and 4th row alternately, like so: work 2 rows and increase on the 3rd row, work 3 rows and increase on the 4th. Repeat this until the increase is complete.

See DROPS lesson: Increase or decrease 1 st on every 3rd and 4th row alternately

to top

16) Why is the pattern slightly different than what I see in the photo?

Pattern repeats can vary slightly in the different sizes, in order to get the correct proportions. If you’re not working the exact same size as the garment in the photo, yours might deviate slightly. This has been carefully developed and adjusted so that the complete impression of the garment is the same in all sizes.

Make sure to follow instructions and diagrams for your size!

to top

17) How can I work a jacket in the round instead of back and forth?

Should you prefer to work in the round instead of back and forth, you may of course adjust the pattern. You’ll need to add steeks mid-front (usually 5 stitches), and follow the instructions. When you would normally turn and work from the wrong side, simply work across the steek and continue in the round. At the end you’ll cut the piece open, pick up stitches to work bands, and cover the cut edges.

See DROPS video: How to knit steeks and cut open

to top

18) Can I work a jumper back and forth instead of in the round?

Should you prefer to work back and forth instead of in the round, you may of course adjust the pattern so you work the pieces separately and then assemble them at the end. Divide the stitches for the body in 2, add 1 edge stitch in each side (for sewing) and work the front and back pieces separately.

See DROPS lesson: Can I adapt a pattern for circular needles into straight needles?

to top

19) Why do you show discontinued yarns in the patterns?

Since different yarns have different qualities and textures we have chosen to keep the original yarn in our patterns. However, you can easily find options among our available qualities by using our yarn converter, or simply pick a yarn from the same yarn group.

It is possible that some retailers still have discontinued yarns in stock, or that someone has a few skeins at home that they would like to find patterns for.

The yarn converter will provide both alternative yarn as well as required amount in the new quality.

to top

20) How do I make a women’s size garment into a men’s size one?

If you have found a pattern you like which is available in women’s size it’s not very difficult to convert it to men’s size. The biggest difference will be the length of sleeves and body. Start working on the women size that you think would fit across the chest. The additional length will be worked right before you cast off for the armhole/sleeve cap. If the pattern is worked top-down you can add the length right after the armhole or before the first decrease on sleeve.

Regarding additional yarn amount, this will depend on how much length you add, but it is better with a skein too many than too few.

to top

21) How do I prevent a hairy garment from shedding?

All yarns will have excess fibres (from production) that might come off as lint or shedding. Brushed yarns (ie hairier yarns) have more of these loose, excess fibres, causing more shedding.

Shedding also depends on what is worn under or over the garment, and whether this pulls at the yarn fibres. It’s therefore not possible to guarantee that there will be no shedding

Below are some tips on how to get the best result when working with hairier yarns:

1. When the garment is finished (before you wash it) shake it vigorously so the looser hairs come off. NOTE: do NOT use a lint roller, brush or any method that pulls at the yarn.

2. Place the garment in a plastic bag and put it in your freezer - the temperature will cause the fibres to become less attached to each other, and excess fibres will come off easier.

3. Leave in the freezer for a few hours before taking it out and shaking it again.

4. Wash the garment according to the instructions on the yarn label.

to top

22) Where on the garment is the length measured?

The measurement sketch/schematic drawing provides information regarding the full length of the garment. If it’s a jumper or a jacket the length is measured from the highest point on the shoulder closest to the neckline, and straight down to the bottom of the garment. It is NOT measured from the tip of shoulder. Similarly, the length of yoke is measured from the highest point on the shoulder and down to where yoke is split into body and sleeves.

On a jacket measures are never taken along bands, unless specifically stated. Always measure inside band stitches when measuring the length.

See DROPS lesson: How to read a schematic drawing

to top

23) How do I know how many balls of yarn I need?

The required amount of yarn is provided in grams, eg: 450 g. To calculate how many balls you’ll need you first need to know how many grams are in 1 ball (25g, 50g or 100g). This information is available if you click on the individual yarn quality on our pages. Divide the amount required with the amount of each ball. For example, if each ball is 50g (the most common amount), the calculation will be as follows: 450 / 50 = 9 balls.

to top

Have you purchased DROPS yarn to make this pattern? Then you are entitled to receive help from the store where you bought the yarn. Find a list of DROPS stores here!
Still can't find the answer you need? Then scroll down and leave your question so one of our experts can try to help you. This will be done normally within 5 to 10 working days. In the meantime, you can read the questions and answers that others have left to this pattern or join the DROPS Workshop on Facebook to get help from fellow knitters/crocheters!

Comments / Questions (32)

Dipty 06.01.2019 - 03:39:

Please help. With binding techniques

DROPS Design 07.01.2019 kl. 11:11:

Dear Dipty, to bind off at full or 1/2 pattern repeat see figure-1 and -2 and "Binding off tip" at the beginning of the pattern. Happy crocheting!

Helena 11.06.2017 - 19:36:

I opskriften er farverne på ærmerne byttet om i forhold til mønster og farvevalg på resten. Kan det passe?

DROPS Design 12.06.2017 kl. 08:27:

Hei Helena. Her er det blitt en liten feil i den danske oppskriften. Dette skal vi få ordnet opp i asap. Tusne takk for tilbakemeldigen. God Fornøyelse videre på denne flotte jakken.

Simone Van Den Tol 06.02.2016 - 21:25:

Nav mijn vorige vraag, op een tablet of gsm is het onbegonnen werk om alles te vertalen via translate. Andere opmerking, bij de mouwen staat vermeld dat je na de boord naar gebroken wit moet gaan, deze kleur wordt niet biu de basis kleuren vermeld en maakt het daardoor verwarrend. Groetjes Simone

Simone 31.01.2016 - 01:04:

Is het mogelijk om de vragen die gesteld zijn automatisch te vertalen? Nu zie ik reacties in bv het Fins en dan zit er geen automatische vertaalknop op, dat zou wel erg helpen, zo voorkom je ook dubbele vragen.

DROPS Design 01.02.2016 kl. 15:41:

Hoi Simone. Dat kunnen wij niet doen, maar je kan vertalen met Google translate bij voorbeeld.

Anna-maija Virkki 03.05.2015 - 15:01:

Kohdassa takakappale 'Kun työn korkeus on 10 ja 20 cm' tarkoittaako tämä, että ensin kavennetaan kun 10cm virkattu ja uudestaan kun 20cm virkattuna? In english same question: In Back piece it says 'When piece measures 10 and 20 cm' does that mean first after you have done 10cm and then Again after 20cm?

DROPS Design 04.05.2015 kl. 11:44:

Aivan oikein, kavennukset tehdään kun työ on 10 cm ja sitten uudestaan, kun työ on 20 cm.

Anne Kvilvang 21.06.2013 - 13:21:

Jeg lurer på om det stemmer at inntagningen op de fremre stykker skal begynne 5 cm høyer enn på bakstykket. iooskriften står det at jeg skal ta inn på 10 og 20 cm på bakstykket men på de to freme skal jeg ta inn på 15 og 25 cm . vil ikke det da bli skjevt . dette er mitt første plagg så jeg spør kanskje dumt. hilse anne kvilvang

DROPS Design 04.07.2013 kl. 12:13:

Hej Anne. Jo, det stemmer at du skal tage ind forskudt.

Lili 28.05.2012 - 21:22:

Bonjour, Je suis en train de faire le dos, j'en suis au niveau des 8 cm à faire en brides. Ça augmente beaucoup la largeur ! J'espère que ça ne se verra pas lorsque tout sera monté. Est-ce normal ? Ne devrait-il pas y avoir de diminution afin que la zone en bride ne fasse pas plus large que le reste ? Merci !

DROPS Design 31.05.2012 kl. 09:06:

Bonjour Lili, vous crochetez apparemment trop "lâche". Vérifiez votre échantillon et n'hésitez pas à prendre contact avec le magasin où vous avez acheté votre laine. Bon crochet !

Drops Design France 26.01.2009 - 09:10:

Bonjour Looklady, le modèle est juste, en taille XXXL, après avoir crocheté le 1er rang ainsi : "1B dans la 9ème ml à partir du crochet,*2 ml, sauter 2 ml, 1B dans la ml suiv* répéter de *à* " on a 59 B, ensuite, on crochète le 2ème rang de M1 = 29 motifs. Les diminutions au dos et aux devants se font de façon volontaire à 2 hauteur différentes, c'est ainsi que le modèle a été créé.

Looklady 23.01.2009 - 22:54:

Il y a une erreur pour le devant il est ecrit que l'on a 29 motifs mais le nombres de motif est de 15 puis il est dit de diminuer comme le dos donc a 10 et 20 cm et non a 15 et 25 cm comme il est ecrit

Looklady 23.01.2009 - 22:53:

Il y a une erreur pour le devant il est ecrit que l'on a 29 motifs mais le nombres de motif est de 15 puis il est dit de diminuer comme le dos donc a 10 et 20 cm et non a 15 et 25 cm comme il est ecrit

Post a comment to pattern DROPS 99-8

We would love to hear what you have to say about this pattern!

If you want to leave a question, please make sure you select the correct category in the form below, to speed up the answering process. Required fields are marked *.